Glass-Steagall: ‘ Senator’s Warren, McCain, Cantwell & King propose to reinstate much of the Act ‘

#AceFinanceNews – Featured Report:WASHINGTON:July.27: Eleanor Bloxham writes that Senators Warren, McCain, Cantwell, and King have proposed a new measure to reinstate much of the original Glass-Steagall banking act of 1933, a Depression-era law that prevented commercial banks from taking on business ordinarily done at investment banks.

Banking Act of 1933, commonly called Glass-Steagall

June 16, 1933
by Julia Maues, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

     The emergency legislation that was passed within days of President Franklin Roosevelt taking office in March 1933 was just the start of the process to restore confidence in the banking system. Congress saw the need for substantial reform of the banking system, which eventually came in the Banking Act of 1933, or the Glass-Steagall Act. The bill was designed “to provide for the safer and more effective use of the assets of banks, to regulate interbank control, to prevent the undue diversion of funds into speculative operations, and for other purposes.” The measure was sponsored by Sen. Carter Glass (D-VA) and Rep. Henry Steagall (D-AL). Glass, a former Treasury secretary, was the primary force behind the act. Steagall, then chairman of the House Banking and Currency Committee, agreed to support the act with Glass after an amendment was added to permit bank deposit insurance.1 On June 16, 1933, President Roosevelt signed the bill into law. Glass originally introduced his banking reform bill in January 1932. It received extensive critiques and comments from bankers, economists, and the Federal Reserve Board. It passed the Senate in February 1932, but the House adjourned before coming to a decision. It was one of the most widely discussed and debated legislative initiatives in 1932.

     Some background: In the wake of the 1929 stock market crash and the subsequent Great Depression, Congress was concerned that commercial banking operations and the payments system were incurring losses from volatile equity markets. An important motivation for the act was the desire to restrict the use of bank credit for speculation and to direct bank credit into what Glass and others thought to be more productive uses, such as industry, commerce, and agriculture.

     In response to these concerns, the main provisions of the Banking Act of 1933 effectively separated commercial banking from investment banking. Senator Glass was the driving force behind this provision. Basically, commercial banks, which took in deposits and made loans, were no longer allowed to underwrite or deal in securities, while investment banks, which underwrote and dealt in securities,  were no longer allowed to have close connections to commercial banks, such as overlapping directorships or common ownership.  Following the passage of the act, institutions were given a year to decide whether they would specialize in commercial or investment banking. Only 10 percent of commercial banks’ total income could stem from securities; however, an exception allowed commercial banks to underwrite government-issued bonds. The separation of commercial and investment banking was not controversial in 1933. There was a broad belief that separation would lead to a healthier financial system. It became more controversial over the years and in 1999 the Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act repealed the provisions of the Banking Act of 1933 that restricted affiliations between banks and securities firms.

     The act also gave tighter regulation of national banks to the Federal Reserve System, requiring holding companies and other affiliates of state member banks to make three reports annually to their Federal Reserve Bank and to the Federal Reserve Board. Furthermore, bank holding companies that owned a majority of shares of any Federal Reserve member bank had to register with the Fed and obtain its permit to vote their shares in the selection of directors of any such member-bank subsidiary.

     Another important provision of the act created the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation (FDIC), which insures bank deposits with a pool of money collected from banks. This provision was the most controversial at the time and drew veto threats from President Roosevelt. It was included at the insistence of Steagall, who had the interests of small rural banks in mind. Small rural banks and their representatives were the main proponents of deposit insurance. Opposition came from large banks that believed they would end up subsidizing small banks. Past attempts by states to instate deposit insurance had been unsuccessful because of moral hazard and also because local banks were not diversified. After the bank holiday, the public showed vast support for insurance, partly in the hope of recovering some of the losses and partly because many blamed Wall Street and big bankers for the Depression. Although Glass had opposed deposit insurance for years, he changed his mind and urged Roosevelt to accept it. A temporary fund became effective in January 1934, insuring deposits up to $2,500. The fund became permanent in July 1934 and the limit was raised to $5,000. This limit was raised numerous times over the years until reaching the current $250,000. All Federal Reserve member banks on or before July 1, 1934, were required to become stockholders of the FDIC by such date. No state bank was eligible for membership in the Federal Reserve System until it became a stockholder of the FDIC, and thereby became an insured institution, with required membership by national banks and voluntary membership by state banks. Deposit insurance is still viewed as a great success, although the problem of moral hazard and adverse selection came up again during banking failures of the 1980s. In response, Congress passed legislation that strengthened capital requirements and required banks with less capital to close.  

     The act had a large impact on the Federal Reserve. Notable provisions included the creation of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) under Section 8. However, the 1933 FOMC did not include voting rights for the Federal Reserve Board, which was revised by the Banking Act of 1935 and amended again in 1942 to closely resemble the modern FOMC. 

     Prior to the passage of the act, there were no restrictions on the right of a bank officer of a member bank to borrow from that bank. Excessive loans to bank officers and directors became a concern to bank regulators. In response, the act prohibited Federal Reserve member bank loans to their executive officers and required the repayment of outstanding loans.

     In addition, the act introduced what later became known as Regulation Q, which mandated that interest could not be paid on checking accounts and gave the Federal Reserve authority to establish ceilings on the interest that could be paid on other kinds of deposits. The view was that payment of interest on deposits led to “excessive” competition among banks, causing them to engage in unduly risky investment and lending policies so that they could earn enough income to pay the interest. The prohibition of interest-bearing demand accounts has been effectively repealed by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010. Beginning July 21, 2011, financial institutions became allowed, but not required, to offer interest-bearing demand accounts. 

Endnotes
1 Glass and Steagall also cosponsored the Banking Act of 1932, which was also commonly referred to as the Glass-Steagall Act prior to the passage of the Banking Act of 1933.

Bibliography
Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis. “Banking Act of 1933.” June 16, 1933, https://fraser.stlouisfed.org/scribd/?item_id=15952&filepath=/docs/historical/ny%20circulars/1933_01248.pdf.

Friedman, Milton and Anna J. Schwartz. A Monetary History of the United States 1867-1960. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1963.  

Meltzer, Allan. A History of the Federal Reserve Volume 1: 1913-1951. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2003.

Preston, Howard H. “The Banking Act of 1933.” The American Economic Review 23, no. 4 (December 1933): 585-607.

Shughart II, William. “A Public Choice Perspective of the Banking Act of 1933.” Cato Journal 7, no. 3 (Winter 1988).

Silber, William. “Why Did FDR’s Bank Holiday Succeed?” Federal Reserve Bank of New York Economic Policy Review, July 2009.

Wells, Donald. The Federal Reserve System: A History. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Company, 2004.

White, Lawrence J. “The Gramm-Leach-Bliley Act of 1999: A Bridge Too Far? Or Not Far Enough?” Suffolk University Law Review 43, no. 4 (August 2010).

Written as of November 22, 2013. See disclaimer.

The new bill will also address risky activities that bankers had not dreamed up 80 years ago.

Read more here. 

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BRITAIN: Osbourne to Court Bankers at Mansion House with #Brexit on the Cards

#AceFinanceNews – Featured Report:BRITAIN:June.10: Despite a spate of record fines of bankers rigging international rates, miss-selling people insurance policies and bagging huge bonuses, UK Chancellor George Osborne is set to use his annual Mansion House event in the City of London to keep his friends happy.

Against the growing lack of trust in the City, Osborne is set to keep his banking friends sweet. The theme of the chancellor’s speech is the need for a new settlement with the EU, with the City, and in the way the public finances are managed. 

Having won electoral success in May, the Conservative government is keen to use its majority to press on with traditional Tory financial policies, which often means fawning to its City backers and friends. 

The annual Mansion House speech is given by the chancellor to black-tied bankers, the City elite and other grandees – many of whom are Conservative Party donors. Osborne himself has an estimated personal fortune of around $6 million, as the beneficiary of a trust fund that owns a 15 percent stake in Osborne & Little, the wallpaper-and-fabrics company co-founded by his father, Sir Peter Osborne. 

However, the City has been rocked in recent years by rows over huge bankers’ bonuses, despite the global economic crash caused by toxic debt flying around and the credit crunch. In the UK the taxpayer had to bail out both Lloyds and RBS in 2008 in order to keep them afloat. 

The government also had to support Northern Rock and Northern Rock (Asset Management), as well as Bradford & Bingley. The total support package for the ban bailout during 2008-9, according to the National Audit Office, came to an eye-watering $1.85 trillion. 

Bonuses and Record Fines

Not content with having had to bail out the bankers, taxpayers have been angered at their bonuses. This year it was reported that bankers were set to be awarded $7.7 billion in bonuses. Bailed bank RBS handed over $770 million, and Lloyds paid $580. 

In the latest scandal, London-based HSBC is being investigated in several countries for operating a secret bank in Switzerland used by rich people and companies to avoid tax in other states in an ‘aggravated money laundering’ operation. 

Meanwhile record fines have been handed over by banks who admitted rigging international rate systems. In 2012, Barclays Bank was fined $200 million by the Commodity Futures Trading Commission, $160 million by the United States Department of Justice and £59.5 million by the UK Financial Services Authority for attempted manipulation of the Libor and Euribor rates.

All eyes will be on whether George Osborne cuts the bank levy, which has been used to swell the government coffers by taking a charge on the financial sector. Stuart Gulliver, chief executive of HSBC, will be listening very carefully, having threatened to move his headquarters out of London and move back to Hong Kong.

Osborne, however, is unlikely to do anything that will upset his City mates too much. He has too much to lose.

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#US : `Federal Reserve Tightens Rules’ on `Foreign Banks’ to make them hold `Higher Reserves’

#AceFinanceNews says that `United States Federal Reserve‘  has tightened its rules for `Foreign Banks’ operating in the `US’ to `Hold Higher Reserves’ and prevent another 2008 Financial Crisis

In 1935, Cret designed the Seal of the Board o...

In 1935, Cret designed the Seal of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

The Federal Reserve has tightened the rules for foreign banks operating in the US, forcing them to hold higher reserves to make them responsible for losses and provide extra solvency in case of another crisis.

Foreign lenders holding $50 billion in US assets will have to establish a subsidiary that will also need to follow the same risk management and liquidity standards as the biggest national banks do.

The Federal Reserve extended the deadline by which foreign banks must comply and meet all the requirements, until July 2016, one year later than originally proposed.

The Fed board approved the decision by a 5 – 0 vote.

The move should “help address the sources of vulnerability” revealed by the crisis, the new chair of the Fed Janet Yellen said.

Before the financial crisis broke in 2008, foreign banks moved from a traditional lending to broker-dealing, where they borrowed dollars in short–term money markets and sold it abroad.

However, the crisis made vulnerable all the lenders equally regardless of the operations they had been involved in, which made foreign players“disproportionate users” of the emergency lending facilities established by the Fed, as USA Today quotes Fed Governor Daniel Tarullo.

Major foreign players on Wall Street like Deutsche Bank and Barclay’s, had pushed back against the Fed’s decision. The new law will squeeze their lending, and raise costs of doing business as lenders will need to transfer costly capital from Europe.

However Sally Miller, the CEO of the Institute of International Bankers in New York, who considers the new Fed rules beneficial to the economy, still thinks that the restrictions were too onerous.

“We continue to have a fundamental disagreement with the Fed about the appropriateness and necessity of applying an extra layer of US bank capital requirements,” as USA today quotes Mrs Miller.

The Fed was ordered to toughen its regulations for large banks that could threaten the entire financial system under the Dodd-Frank Act that Congress passed in 2010 in response to the financial crisis.

RT 

 

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Who Quoted What, When and Where About a Simple Thing Called Money

Quotes – From Prominent People

VOLTAIRE (1694-1778)

Paper money eventually returns to its intrinsic value —- zero.”

PRESIDENT JAMES A. GARFIELD

“Whoever controls the volumn of money in any country is absolute master of all industry and commerce.”

Slavery

Slavery (Photo credit: quadelirus)

HORACE GREELY

“While boasting of our noble deeds, we are careful to control the ugly fact that by an iniquitous money system, we have nationalized a system of oppression which, though more refined, is not less cruel than the old system of chattel slavery.”

SIR. REGINALD MCKENNA, former President of the Midland Bank of England

“Those who create and issue money and credit direct the policies of government and hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people.”

SIR JOSIAH STAMP, (President of the Bank of England in the 1920’s, the second richest man in Britain)

“Banking was conceived in iniquity, and was born in sin. The Bankers own the Earth. Take it away from them, but leave them the power to create deposits, and with the flick of the pen, they will create enough deposits, to buy it back again. However, take it away from them, and all the great fortunes like mine will disappear, and they ought to disappear, for this would be a happier and better world to live in. But if you wish to remain the slaves of Bankers, and pay the cost of your own slavery, let them continue to create deposits.”

ROTHSCHILDS BROS. OF LONDON

“Those few who can understand the system (check book money and credit) will either be so interested in its profits, or so dependent on it favors, that there will be little opposition from that class, while on the other hand, the great body of people mentally incapable of comprehending the tremendous advantage that capital derives from the system, will bear it burdens without complaint, and perhaps without even suspecting that the system is inimical to their interests.”

ANSELM ROTHSCHILD

“Give me the power to issue a nation’s money; then I do not care who makes the law.”

English: Woodrow Wilson.

English: Woodrow Wilson. (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

PRESIDENT WOODROW WILSON

“A great industrial nation is controlled by its system of credit. Our system of credit is concentrated. The growth of the Nation and all our activities are in the hands of a few men. We have come to be one of the worst ruled, one of the most completely controlled and dominated governments in the world–no longer a government of free opinion, no longer a government of conviction, and vote of the majority, but a government by the opinion and duress, of small groups of dominant men.”

Just before President Woodrow Wilson died, he is reported to have stated to friends that he had been “deceived” and that “I have betrayed my Country”. referring to the Federal Reserve Act, passed during his Presidency.

PELATIAH WEBSTER

“Paper money polluted the equity of our laws, turned them into engines of oppression, corrupted the justice of our public administration, destroyed the fortunes of thousands who had confidence in it, enervated the trade, husbandry, and manufactures of our country, and went far to destroy the morality of our people.”

WILLIAM PATTERSON

“The bank hath benefit of interest on all moneys which it creates out of nothing.”

POPE PIUS XI

“In the first place, then, it is patent that in our days, not wealth alone is accumulated, but immense power and despotic economic domination are concentrated in the hands of the few, who for the most part are not the owners but only the trustees and directors of invested funds, which they administer at their own good pleasure…This domination is most powerfully exercised by those who, because they hold and control money, also govern credit and determine its allotment, for that reason supplying so to speak, the life blood of the entire economic body, and grasping in their hands, as it were, the very soul of production, so that no one can breathe against their will…”

IRVING FISHER

“Thus, our national circulating medium is now at the mercy of loan transactions of banks, which lend, not money, but promises to supply money they do not possess.”

MAJOR L. L. B. ANGUS

“The modern banking system manufactures money out of nothing. The process is, perhaps, the most, astounding piece of sleight of hand that was ever invented. Banks can in fact inflate, mint, and un-mint the modern ledger-entry currency”.

RALPH M. HAWTREY, (Former Secretary of the British Treasury)

“Banks lend by creating credit. They create the means of payment, out of nothing.”

ROBERT H. HEMPHILL (Credit Manager of Federal Reserve Bank, Atlanta, Georgia)

“This is a staggering thought. We are completely dependent, on the Commercial Banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar, we have in circulation, cash or credit. If the Banks create ample synthetic money, we are prosperous; if not, we starve. We are, absolutely, without a permanent money system. When one gets a complete grasp of the picture, the tragic absurdity, of our hopeless position, is almost incredible, but there it is. It is the most, important subject, intelligent persons can investigate and reflect upon. It is so important that our present civilization may collapse, unless it becomes widely understood, and the defects remedied very soon.”

CONGRESSMAN LOUIS T. McFADDEN and former Chairman of the Committee on Banking and Currency.

” . . . we have in this Country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks. . . . This evil institution has impoverished and ruined the people of the United States. . . . Some people think the Federal Reserve Banks are United States Government institutions. They are private credit monopolies which prey upon the people of the United States for the Benefit of themselves and their foreign customers. …”

Description: Newspaper clipping USA, Woodrow W...

Description: Newspaper clipping USA, Woodrow Wilson signs creation of the Federal Reserve. Source: Date: 24 December 1913 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

“The Federal Reserve (Banks) are one of the most corrupt institutions, the world has ever seen. There is not a man, within the sound of my voice, who does not know that this Nation is run by the International Bankers”.

“Mr. Chairman, we have in this country one of the most corrupt institutions the world has ever known. I refer to the Federal Reserve Board and the Federal Reserve Banks, hereinafter called the Fed. The Fed has cheated the Government of the United States and the people of the United States out of enough money to pay the Nation’s debt…. The wealth of these United States and the working capital have been taken away from them and has either been locked in the vaults of certain banks and the great corporations or exported to foreign countries for the benefit of foreign customers of these banks and corporations. So far as the people of the United States are concerned, the cupboard is bare.”

“When the Federal Reserve Act was passed, the people of these United States did not perceive that a world banking system was being set up here. A super-state controlled by international bankers and industrialists…acting together to enslave the world…Every effort has been made by the Fed to conceal its powers but the truth is–the Fed has usurped the government.”

JAMES MADISON

“The prime function of government is the protection of the different and unequal faculties of men for acquiring property.”

“History records that the money changers have used every form of abuse, intrigue, deceit, and violent means possible to maintain their control over governments by controlling money and its issuance.”

“The extension of the prohibition to bills of credit must give pleasure to every citizen, in proportion to his love of justice and his knowledge of the true springs of public prosperity. The loss which America has sustained since the peace from the pestilent effects of paper money on the necessary confidence between man and man, on the necessary confidence in the public councils, on the industry and morals of the people and on the character of republican government, constitutes an enormous debt against the States chargeable with this ill-advised measure, which must long remain unsatisfied; or rather an accumulation of guilt, which can be expiated no otherwise than by a voluntary sacrifice on the altar of justice of the power which has been the instrument of it. In addition to these persuasive considerations, it may be observed that the same reasons which show the necessity of denying to the States the power of regulating coin, prove with equal force that they ought not to be at liberty to substitute a paper medium in the place of the coin.” Number 44 of the Federalist Papers.

“Paper money may be deemed an aggression on the rights of the other states.”

ALEXANDER HAMILTON

“To emit an unfunded paper as the sign of value ought not to continue a formal part of the Constitution, nor even after this… takes effect to be employed; being, in its nature, pregnant with abuses, and liable to be made the engine of imposition and fraud; holding out temptations equally pernicious to the integrity of government and to the morals of the people.”

ANDREW JACKSON

“If congress has the right under the Constitution to issue paper money, it was given them to use themselves, not to be delegated to individuals or corporations.

“The bold efforts that the present bank has made to control the government and the distress it has wantonly caused, are but premonitions of the fate which awaits the American people should they be deluded into a perpetuation of this institution or the establishment of another like it…If the people only understood the rank injustice of our money and banking system there would be a revolution before morning.”

FROM A SECRET AGENT – 1862

“Slavery is likely to be abolished by the war power and all chattel slavery abolished. This I and my European friends are in favor of, for slavery is but the owning of labour and carries with it the care of the labourers, while the European plan, led on by England, is that capital shall control labour by controlling wages. The great debt that the capitalists will see to it is made out of the war, must be used as a means to control the volume of money. To accomplish this the bonds must be used as a banking basis. We are now waiting for the Secretary of the Treasury to make this recommendation to Congress. It will not do to allow the green-back, as it is called, to circulate as money any length of time, as we can not control that. But we can control the bonds and through them the bank issues.”

Abraham Lincoln

Abraham Lincoln (Photo credit: casually_cruel)

ABRAHAM LINCOLN

“There should be no war upon property or the owners of property. Property is the fruit of labour; property is desirable; is a positive good in the world. That some should be rich shows that others may become rich, hence, is just encouragement to industry and enterprise.”

“I have two great enemies: the Southern Army in front of me, and the financial institutions to my rear. Of the two, the one in my rear is my greatest foe…”

“The Government should create, issue, and circulate all the currency and credits needed to satisfy the spending power of the Government and the buying power of consumers. By the adoption of these principles, the taxpayers will be saved immense sums of interest. Money will cease to be master and become the servant of humanity.

“Yes; we may all congratulate ourselves that this cruel war is nearing its close. It has cost a vast amount of treasure and blood. The best blood of the flower of American youth has been freely offered upon our country’s altar that the Nation might live. It has been, indeed a trying hour for the Republic; but I see in the future a crisis approaching that unnerves me and causes me to tremble for the safety of my country. As a result of the war, corporations have been enthroned and an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will attempt to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic is destroyed. I feel at this moment more anxiety for the safety of my country than ever before, even in the midst of the war.”

“I see in the near future a crisis approach which unnerves me and cause me to tremble for the safety of my country. Corporations (of banking) have been enthroned, an era of corruption in high places will follow, and the money power of the country will attempt to prolong its reign by working upon the prejudices of the people until the wealth is aggregated in a few hands and the Republic destroyed.”

SALMON P. CHASE, (Lincoln’s Secretary to the Treasury) who was the pilot of the 1863 banking act in the US never forgave himself, subsequently saying:

“My agency, in promoting the passage of the National Bank Act, was the greatest mistake in my life. It has built up a monopoly which affects every interest in the country. It should be repealed, but before that can be accomplished, the people should be arrayed on one side, and the banks on the other, in a contest such as we have never seen before in this country.”

OTTO VON BISMARCK, German Chancellor (1815-1898)

“The death of Lincoln was a disaster for Christendom. There was no man in the United States great enough to wear his boots and the bankers went anew to grab the riches. I fear that foreign bankers with their craftiness and tortuous tricks will entirely control the exuberant riches of America and use it to systematically corrupt modern civilization.”

LONDON TIMES -1865

“If this mischievous financial policy [of creating a debt-free currency], which has its origin in the American Republic, shall become permanent, then that government will give its own money without cost! It will pay off its debts and be without debt. It will have all the money necessary to carry on its commerce. It will become prosperous without precedent in the history of the world. The brains and the wealth of all countries will go to America. That government must be destroyed or it will destroy every monarchy on the globe!”

JOHN C. CALHOUN

“A power has risen up in the government greater than the people themselves, consisting of many and various powerful interests joined in one mass, and held together by the cohesive power of the vast surplus in the banks.”

LEON N. TOLSTOY

“Money is a new form of slavery, and distinguishable from the old simply by the fact that it is impersonal — that there is no human relation between master and slave.”

Frederic Bastiat,  The Law

“When plunder becomes a way of life for a group of men living together in society, they create for themselves in the course of time a legal system that authorizes it and a moral code that glorifies it.”

WN. COBBETT

” I set to work to read the Act of Parliament by which the Bank of England was created in 1694. The inventors knew well what they were about. Their design was to mortgage by degrees the whole of the country, all the lands, all the houses, and all other property, and even all labor, to those who would lend their money to the State—the scheme, the crafty, the cunning, the deep scheme has produced what the world never saw before—starvation in the midst of plenty.”

DARRYL R. FRANCIS, former President of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis

“Since the direct method of printing money to finance government expenditures is prohibited in the United states, the monetization of government deficits has occurred indirectly . . . government debt is ultimately being financed by the creation of new money . . . I doubt that monetization of debt has a conscious act . . . I can find no benefits accuring to the whole of society from debt monetization, but the risks are very serious and can be expressed in one word, inflation” “In the case of debt monetization the immediate and even the short run impact is neither an increase in interest rates, and yet real resources are still being transferred from private to government use.”

“Federal Reserve System” Bd. of Gov.’s

“….in the practical workings of the banking system the bulk of deposits originates in the granting of loans…., and his ability to make loans and investments arises largely from the receipt of his depositors’ money.”

“As we realize that banks create their own deposit debts….we begin to see why these institutions are often called monetizer’s of debt…”

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago, Modern Money Mechanics,

“The actual process of money creation takes place in commercial banks. As noted earlier, demand liabilities of commercial banks are money.”, 

“Confidence in these forms of money also seems to be tied in some way to the fact that assets exist on the books of the government and the banks equal to the amount of money outstanding, even though most of the assets themselves are no more than pieces of paper–.”, 

“Commercial banks create check-book money when they grant a loan, simply by adding new deposit dollars in accounts on their books in exchange for a borrower’s IOU.”,

“The 12 regional reserve banks aren’t government institutions, but corporations nominally ‘owned’ by member commercial banks.”, p. 27.

St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank, Review, Nov. 1975.   

“The decrease in purchasing power incurred by holders of money due to inflation imparts gains to the issuers of money–.”

Federal Reserve Bank of Philadelphia, Gold. 

“Without the confidence factor, many believe a paper money system is liable to collapse eventually.”

Federal Reserve Bank, New York

“Because of ‘fractional’ reserve system, banks, as a whole, can expand our money supply several times, by making loans and investments.”

“Commercial banks create checkbook money when they grant a loan, simply by adding new deposit dollars in accounts on their books in exchange for a borrower’s IOU.”

Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago

“The actual process of money creation takes place in commercial banks. As noted earlier, demand liabilities of commercial banks are money.”

ROBERT HEMPHILL, former Credit Manager of the Federal Reserve Bank in Atlanta.

“If all the bank loans were paid, no one could have a bank deposit, and there would not be a dollar of coin or currency in circulation. This is a staggering thought. We are completely dependent on the commercial banks. Someone has to borrow every dollar we have in circulation, cash, or credit. If the banks create ample synthetic money we are prosperous; if not, we starve. We are absolutely without a permanent money system. When one gets a complete grasp of the picture, the tragic absurdity of our hopeless situation is almost incredible-but there it is.”

WALTER WRISTON, former chairman of the Citicorp Bank

“If we had a truth-in-Government act comparable to the truth-in-advertising law, every note issued by the Treasury would be obliged to include a sentence stating: “This note will be redeemed with the proceeds from an same note which will be sold to the public when this one comes due.” When it is carried out in the United States, as it is weekly, it is described as a Treasury bill auction. But when basically the same process is conducted abroad in a foreign language, our news media usually speak of a country’s “rolling over its debts.” The perception remains that some form of disaster is inevitable. It is not. To see why, it is only necessary to understand the basic facts of government borrowing. The first is that there are few recorded instances in history of government-any government-actually getting out of debt. Certainly in an era of $100-billion deficits, no one lending money to our Government by buying a Treasury bill expects that it will be paid at maturity in any way except by our Government’s selling a new bill of like amount.”

MERRILL JENKINS SR.

“The right of distribution over private property is the essence of freedom.”

“Force- modern Money, then, has the power to create debt since it can command other goods, but is valueless itself. Money has purchasing power, but no value — without purchasing power.. Fed. “Notes” must be accepted as a tender for debt, but are not “money” — so therefore –do not have money’s unique ability called purchasing power, what thing has purchasing power? what thing can force the public to offer its property and rights. Offer means to present for action or consideration; propose; suggest; it is a voluntary act. What thing can ‘force’ anyone into a voluntary act of offering. The words force and voluntary are  exactly opposed and it is by the acceptance of this impossible concept of ‘voluntary force’ being ‘purchasing power’ that makes the public believe that something must be ‘money’ and have this unique power.” .

Congressman Jerry Voorhis

“The banks — commercial banks and the Federal Reserve — create all the money of this nation and its people pay interest on every dollar of that newly created money. Which means that private banks exercise unconstitutionally, immorally, and ridiculously the power to tax the people. For every newly created dollar dilutes to some extent the value of every other dollar already in circulation.”

RUSSELL L.MUNK, former Assistant General Counsel, Department of the Treasury

“Federal Reserve Notes are not dollars.”

PRESIDENT JOHN ADAMS

“All the perplexities, confusions and distresses in America arise not from defects in the constitution or confederation, not from want of honor or virtue, as much as from downright ignorance of the nature of coin, credit and circulation.”

Constitution of the United States of America

Constitution of the United States of America (Photo credit: The U.S. National Archives)

THE CONSTITUTION OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA

“No State shall enter into any treaty, alliance, or confederation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit letters of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts, or grant any title of nobility.” (Article I, Section 10)

U.S. Supreme Court, Craig v. Missouri, 4 Peters 410.

“Emitting bills of credit, or the creation of money by private corporations, is what is expressly forbidden by Article 1, Section 10 of the U.S. Constitution.”

George Bancroft

“Madison, agreeing with the journal of the convention, records that the grant of power to emit bills of credit was refused by a majority of more than four to one. The evidence is perfect; no power to emit paper money was granted to the legislature of the United States.”

JOHN FISKE

“It was finally decided, by the vote of nine states against New Jersey and Maryland, that the power to issue inconvertible paper should not be granted to the federal government. An express prohibition, such as had been adopted for the separate states, was thought unnecessary. It was supposed that it was enough to withhold the power, since the federal government would not venture to exercise it unless expressly permitted in the Constitution. “Thus,” says Madison, in his narrative of the proceedings, “the pretext for a paper currency, and particularly for making the bills a tender, either for public or private debts, was cut off.” Nothing could be more clearly expressed than this. As Mr. Justice Field observes, in his able dissenting opinion in the recent case of Juilliard vs. Greenman, “if there be anything in the history of the Constitution which can be established with moral certainty, it is that the framers of that instrument intended to prohibit the issue of legal-tender notes both by the general government and by the states, and thus prevent interference with the contracts of private parties.” Such has been the opinion of our ablest constitutional jurists, Marshall, Webster, Story, Curtis, and Nelson. There can be little doubt that, according to all sound principles of interpretation, the Legal Tender Act of 1862 was passed in flagrant violation of the Constitution.”

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, MAY 11, 1972

“Some people think the Federal Reserve Banks are United States government institutions, they are not government institutions, they are private credit monopolies.”

CONGRESSIONAL RECORD, JUNE 10, 1932. 

“The Federal Reserve Board, and the Federal Reserve Banks are private Corporations.”

John Maynard Keynes Русский: Джон Мейнард Кейн...

John Maynard Keynes Русский: Джон Мейнард Кейнс Türkçe: John Maynard Keynes (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

JOHN MAYNARD KEYNES, (chief architect of our current fiat-paper money system)

“By a continuing process of inflation, governments can confiscate, secretly and unobserved, an important part of the wealth of their citizens”

“If governments should refrain from regulation….. the worthlessness of the money becomes apparent and the fraud upon the public can be concealed no longer”

“Lenin is said to have declared that the best way to destroy the Capitalistic System was to debauch the currency. . . Lenin was certainly right. There is no subtler, no surer means of overturning the existing basis of society than to debauch the currency. The process engages all the hidden forces of economic law on the side of destruction, and does it in a manner which not one man in a million can diagnose.”

CHARLES LINDBERG

“Ever since the Civil War, Congress has allowed the bankers to control financial legislation. The membership of the Finance Committee in the Senate (now the Banking and Currency Committee) and the Committee on Banking and Currency in the House have been made up chiefly of bankers, their agents, and their attorneys. …In this way the committees have been able to control legislation in the interests of the few.”

“This Act (Federal Reserve Act) establishes the most gigantic trust on earth. When the President signs this bill, the invisible government by the Monetary Power will be legalized… The worst legislative crime of the age is perpetrated by this banking and currency bill. The caucus of the party bosses have again operated and prevented the people from getting the benefits of their own government.”

BENJAMIN DISRAELI, former British Prime Minister

“The world is Governed by very different personages from what is imagined by those who are not behind the scenes.”

WILLIAM JENNINGS BRYAN 

“Money power denounces, as public enemies, all who question its methods or throw light upon its crimes.”

JOHN F. KENNEDY

“The great free nations of the world must take control of our monetary problems if these problems are not to take control of us.”

ERNEST HEMINGWAY

“The first panacea for a mismanaged nation is inflation of the currency; second is war. Both bring a temporary (and false) prosperity; both bring a permanent ruin. But both are the refuge of political and economic opportunities.”

THE RT. HON. REGINALD MCKENNA (one-time British Chancellor of the Exchequer, and Chairman of the Midland Bank)

“I am afraid the ordinary citizen will not like to be told that the banks can, and do, create and destroy money. The amount of finance in existence varies only with the action of the banks in increasing or decreasing deposits and bank purchases. We know how this is effected. Every loan, overdraft or bank purchase creates a deposit, and every repayment of a loan, overdraft or bank sale destroys a deposit.”

“And they who control the credit of the nation direct the policy of governments, and hold in the hollow of their hands the destiny of the people.”

JOHN B. RARICK

“Mr. Speaker, the current efforts by our Government to hold down price increases have served to focus the attention of thoughtful students on a little discussed facet of our money system, this system, because of a long procedure of mis-education and studied silence, is not now understood as it was prior to the adoption of the Federal Reserve system more than half a century ago. It is based upon debt; has serious implications for the future of our country, and invites what may be the greatest war in history. …    Every debt Dollar demands an interest tribute from our economy for every year that Dollar remains in circulation. These interest costs force up the price of every commodity and service and contribute greatly to inflation. …”

“Under the Constitution, the Congress has responsibility of issuing the nation’s money and regulating its value Art. 1, Sec 8, Cl. 5, in a recent brilliant analysis of our money system by T. David Horton, Chairman of the Executive Council of the Defenders of the American Constitution, able Lawyer and keen student of basic American history, he suggests a proven remedy for our current predicament that will enable the Congress to resume its Constitutional responsibilities to regulate our nation’s money by liberating our economy from the swindle of the debt-money manipulators by the issuance of national currency in debt fee form … We have a certain amount of non-interest bearing money in circulation, all of our fractional currency, pennies, nickels, dimes, quarters, and half dollars. They are manufactured in our mints, and are paid into circulation, circulate freely, and provide the government with a valuable source of revenue. From 1966 through 1970 the amount of seignorage paid into the treasury by the mints amounted to in excess of 4 billion dollars the profit ratio on this type of currency is 6 to 1, or currency 6 times the cost of production. The cost ration for Federal Reserve Notes is 600 to 1; however, during these same four years, 1986 through 1970, 50 billion dollars in Federal Reserve Notes were manufactured by the bureau of printing and engraving and turned over to the banks; not one cent in seignorage was paid over to the treasury. … Our Debt money system compels the government to spend more than it takes in, because this is the only way we can keep the economy going…”

George Washington

George Washington (Photo credit: Joye~)

GEORGE WASHINGTON

“Every lover of his country will therefore be solicitous to find out some speedy remedy for this alarming evil. There is no possible substitute for the loss of commerce. Our first grand object, therefore, it its restoration. I presume not to dictate or direct. It is a subject that will require the deepest deliberations and researches of the wisest and more experienced men in America to fully comprehend. It probably belongs to no one man existing to possess all the qualifications required to trace the course of American commerce through all intricate paths and to those and only those that shall lead the United States to future glory and prosperity I am sanguine in the belief of the possibility that we may one day become a great commercial and flourishing nation. But if in the pursuit of the means we should unfortunately stumble again on unfunded paper money or any similar species of fraud, we shall assuredly give a fatal stab to our national credit in its infancy. Paper money will invariably operate in the body of politics as spirit liquors on the human body. They prey on the vitals and ultimately destroy them.”

“Paper money has had the effect in your state that it will ever have, to ruin commerce, oppress the honest, and open the door to every species of fraud and injustice.” (letter to J. Bowen, Rhode Island, Jan. 9, 1787)

“If ever again our nation stumbles upon unfunded paper, it shall surely be like death to our body politic. This country will crash.”

JERRY JORDAN, Cleveland Fed Res Bank President

“The failed attempts at influencing real economic activity during the late 1960’s and 1970’s are a clear warning of the damaging power of the central bank.”

DENNIS KARNOFSKY, Chief economic adviser St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank

“….what is a dollar its just something artificial we throw out there….what youre doing is youre fooling people….”

LAWRENCE PARKS, Executive Director, FAME

“Bypassing voters, taxpayers and the public at large, Congress has delegated to the Fed a power that the Congress itself does not have.”

LUDWIG VON MISES

“Government is the only agency which can take a useful commodity like paper, slap some ink on it and make it totally worthless.”

DANIEL WEBSTER

“No other rights are safe where property is not safe:”

“Of all the contrivances devised for cheating the laboring classes of mankind, none has been more effective than that which deludes him with paper money.”

We are in danger of being overwhelmed with irredeemable paper, mere paper, representing not gold nor silver; no sir, representing nothing but broken promises, bad faith, bankrupt corporations, cheated creditors and a ruined people.”

THE BIBLE

“If thou lend money to any of my people who is poor by thee, thou shalt not be to him an usurer, neither shalt thou lay upon him usury.” Exodus 22:25
“Take no usury of him, or increase … thou shalt not give him thy money upon usury.” Leviticus 25:36-37
“Unto thy brother thou shalt not lend upon usury: That the Lord they God bless thee.” Deuteronomy 23:20
“The rich rule over the poor,  and the borrower is a servant to the lender.” Proverbs 22.7
“The stranger that is within thee shall get up above thee very high, and thou shalt come down very low. He shall lend to thee, and thou shalt not lend to him; he shall be the head, and thou shalt be the tail.” Deut. 28:44-45

PELATIAH WEBSTER

“Paper money polluted the equity of our laws, turned them into engines of oppression, corrupted the justice of our public administration, destroyed the fortunes of thousands who had confidence in it, enervated the trade, husbandry, and manufactures of our country, and went far to destroy the morality of our people.”

Benjamin Franklin

Benjamin Franklin (Photo credit: elycefeliz)

BENJAMIN FRANKLIN

“The refusal of King George to operate an honest colonial money system which freed the ordinary man from the clutches of the manipulators was probably the prime cause of the Revolution.”

“The Colonies would gladly have borne the little tax on tea and other matters, had it not been that England took away from the Colonies their money, which created unemployment and dis-satisfaction.”

THOMAS JEFFERSON

“The system of banking we have both equally and ever reprobated. I contemplate it as a blot left in all our constitutions, which, if not covered, will end in their destruction, … I sincerely believe, with you, that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies; and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large-scale.”

“The eyes of our citizens are not sufficiently open to the true cause of our distress. They ascribe them to everything but their true cause, the banking system; a system which if it could do good in any form is yet so certain of leading to abuse as to be utterly incompatible with the public safety and prosperity. I sincerely believe that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies… and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity, under the name of funding, is but swindling futurity on a large-scale.”

“… we must not let our rulers load us with perpetual debt…If we run into such debts as that we must be taxed in our meat and in our drink, in our necessities and comforts, in our labors and in our amusements, for our callings and our creeds…our people…must come to labor 16 hours in the 24, give the earnings of 15 of these to the government for their debts and daily expenses; and the 16th being insufficient to afford us bread,…We have no time to think, no means of calling the mis-managers to account; but be glad to obtain subsistence by hiring ourselves, to rivet their chains on the necks of our fellow sufferers. Our land holders, too…retaining indeed the title and stewardship of estates called theirs, but held really in trust for the treasury,. . .this is the tendency of all human governments. A departure from principle becomes a precedent for a second; that second for a third; and so on, till the bulk of society is reduced to mere automatons of misery, to have no sensibilities left but for sinning and suffering…And the fore horse of this frightful team is public debt. Taxation follows that, and in its train, wretchedness and oppression.”

“I believe that banking institutions are more dangerous to our liberties than standing armies. Already they have raised up a money aristocracy that has set the government at defiance. This issuing power should be taken from the banks and restored to the people to whom it properly belongs. If the American people ever allow private banks to control the issue of currency, first by inflation, then by deflation, the banks and corporations that will grow up around them will deprive the people of all property until their children will wake up homeless on the continent their fathers conquered. I hope we shall crush in its birth the aristocracy of the moneyed corporations which already dare to challenge our Government to a trial of strength and bid defiance to the laws of our country”

I sincerely believe … that banking establishments are more dangerous than standing armies, and that the principle of spending money to be paid by posterity under the name of funding is but swindling futurity on a large-scale.”

I place economy among the first and important virtues, and public debt as the greatest of dangers. To preserve our independence, we must not let our
rulers load us with perpetual debt. We must make our choice between economy and liberty, or profusion and servitude. If we can prevent the government
from wasting the labours of the people under the pretense of caring for them, they will be happy.

“The Central Bank is an institution of the most deadly hostility existing against the principles and form of our Constitution.”

GEORGE BANCROFT

“Madison, agreeing with the journal of the convention, records that the grant of power to emit bills of credit was refused by a majority of more than four to one. The evidence is perfect; no power to emit paper money was granted to the legislature of the United States.”

Thomas Alva Edison photo and signature. 1915. ...

Thomas Alva Edison photo and signature. 1915. Русский: Автограф и фотопортрет Томаса Альвы Эдисона, американского изобретателя. 1915 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

THOMAS A. EDISON

“People who will not turn a shovel of dirt on the project, nor contribute a pound of material, will collect more money, from the United States, than will the people, who supply all the material and do all the work. This is the terrible thing about interest (usury) … But here is the point: If the nation can issue a dollar bond, it can also issue a dollar bill. The element that makes the bond good, makes the bill good, also. The difference, between the bond and the bill, is that the bond lets the money-broker collect twice the amount of the bond, and an additional 20%. Whereas the currency, the honest sort, provided by the Constitution, pays nobody, but those, who contribute in some useful way. It is absurd, to say that our country can issue bonds, and cannot issue currency. Both are promises to pay, but one fattens the usurer and the other helps the people. If the currency issued by the people were no good, then the bonds would be no good, either. It is a terrible situation, when the Government, to insure the national wealth, must go in debt and submit to ruinous interest charges, at the hands of men, who control the fictitious value of gold. Interest is the invention of Satan.”

Mr Phillip A. Benson, President of the American Bankers’ Association, June 8 1939

“There is no more direct way to capture control of a nation than through its credit (money) system.”

F.A. HAYEK

“The history of government management of money has, except for a few short happy periods, been one of incessant fraud and deception.”

DR. PAUL HEIN

“Freedom and fiat are incompatible; slavery and scrip are bedfellows.”

“Inflation (caused by paper money) is an evil which exerts its baleful influence throughout society. Gold and silver were gifts of God, and, short of the labor required to obtain them, were ours free. They didn’t have to be returned to the source, much less with interest! Inflation, on the other hand, is borrowed into existence from a privileged clique who, by the very nature of the process, enslave those who use it.”

USA Banker’s Magazine, August 25 1924

“Capital must protect itself in every possible manner by combination and legislation. Debts must be collected, bonds and mortgages must be foreclosed as rapidly as possible. When, through a process of law, the common people lose their homes they will become more docile and more easily governed through the influence of the strong-arm of government, applied by a central power of wealth under control of leading financiers. This truth is well-known among our principal men now engaged in forming an imperialism of Capital to govern the world. By dividing the voters through the political party system, we can get them to expend their energies in fighting over questions of no importance. Thus by discreet action we can secure for ourselves what has been so well planned and so successfully accomplished.”

Treasury Secretary Woodin, 3/7/1933

“Where would we be if we had I.O.U.’s scrip and certificates floating all around the country?” Instead he decided to “issue currency against the sound assets of the banks. The Federal Reserve Act lets us print all we’ll need. And it won’t frighten the people. It won’t look like stage money. It’ll be money that looks like real money.” The Bank Holiday of 1933′

English: U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosev...

English: U.S. President Franklin Delano Roosevelt addresses a joint session of United States Congress. It is typically identified as a photo of Roosevelt’s “Infamy” speech, December 8, 1941, however this has been disputed. It is also possible that this photo was actually taken during his “Four Freedoms” speech (State of the Union address, January 6, 1941) or his 1942 State of the Union address (January 6, 1942). Photo 208-CN-3992 (Photo credit: Wikipedia)

President Franklin D. Roosevelt

“The real truth of the matter is, as you and I know, that a financial element in the large centers has owned the government ever since the days of Andrew Jackson.”

John Kenneth Galbraith

The study of money, above all other fields in economics, is one in which complexity is used to disguise truth or to evade truth, not to show it.” Money: Whence it came, where it went – 1975,

The process by which banks create money is so simple that the mind is repelled.” Money: Whence it came, where it went – 1975,

Georgetown professor Dr. Carroll Quigley (Bill Clinton’s mentor while at Georgetown)

“… nothing less than to create a world system of financial control in private hands able to dominate the political system of each country and the economy of the worlds a whole… controlled in a feudalist fashion by the central banks of the world acting in concert, by secret agreements arrived at in frequent private meetings and conferences.”

BOB PRECHTER

“I cannot morally blame all Americans for allowing, for instance, the birth of the Federal Reserve System (a private cartel with full control over the issuance of national debt) and the money destruction that has followed. They are simply ignorant about it and don’t know what happened or what is happening. They think that prices go up rather than that dollars go down. Unsound money imposes an  environment of immorality, which in turn makes people behave in different ways for reasons they know not. Sometimes you can blame immorality for the imposition of bad structures (bad people do it with full knowledge of what they are doing), but sometimes it is simply stupidity. People revere democracy, but democracy ends in plunder by the majority. Are people immoral for supporting democracy? I think rather that they lack a deep understanding of its essence. At a very deep level, I would say that the reason such structures are created is due to both a lack of knowledge and a false morality, which in turn is due to a lack of knowledge.”

REP. HOWARD BUFFETT

“The gold standard acted as a silent watchdog to prevent ‘unlimited public spending.’ Our finances will never be brought in order until Congress is compelled to do so. Making our money redeemable in gold will create this compulsion.”

“. . .  when you recall that one of the first moves by Lenin, Mussolini and Hitler was to outlaw individual ownership of gold, you begin to sense that there may be some connection between money, redeemable in gold, and the rare prize known as human liberty. Also, when you find that Lenin declared and demonstrated that a sure way to overturn the existing social order and bring about communism was by printing press paper money, then again you are impressed with the possibility of a relationship between a gold-backed money and human freedom.”

Encyclopaedia Britannica, 14th Edition

“Banks create credit. It is a mistake to suppose that bank credit is created to any extent by the payment of money into the banks. A loan made by a bank is a clear addition to the amount of money in the community.”

$531-Trillion Derivatives Market / Alan Greens...

$531-Trillion Derivatives Market / Alan Greenspan #1 Culprit / Follow the Money (Photo credit: 666isMONEY ☮ ♥ & ☠)

ALAN GREENSPAN

“The abandonment of the gold standard made it possible for the welfare statists to use the banking system as a means to an unlimited expansion of credit…. In the absence of the gold standard, there is no way to protect savings from confiscation through inflation. There is no safe store of value…. Deficit spending is simply a scheme for the “hidden” confiscation of wealth…. [Gold] stands as a protector of property rights.”

“This is the shabby secret of the welfare statists’ tirades against gold. Deficit spending is simply a scheme for the “hidden” confiscation of wealth. Gold stands in the way of this insidious process. It stands as a protector of property rights. If one grasps this, one has no difficulty in understanding the statists’ antagonism toward the gold standard.”

 Guest Post Courtesy: SBC 

#acedebtnews, #acefinancenews, #abraham-lincoln, #alan-greenspan, #andrew-jackson, #bank-of-england, #benjamin-franklin, #federal-reserve-act, #federal-reserve-system, #franklin-d-roosevelt, #george-washington, #james-a-garfield, #james-garfield, #john-maynard-keynes, #london, #pope-pius-xi, #reginald-mckenna, #slavery, #theodore-roosevelt, #thomas-edison, #united-state, #united-states, #united-states-constitution, #woodrow-wilson

Bankers Panic of the 1907 Knickerbocker Crisis that led to the Creation of the Federal Reserve

Wall Street Panic's as bankers lose their shirt!

Wall Street Panic’s as bankers lose their shirt!

The Panic of 1907 – also known as the 1907 Bankers’ Panic or Knickerbocker Crisis  was a United States financial crisis that took place when the New York Stock Exchange fell almost 50% from its peak the previous year. Panic occurred, as this was during a time of economic recession, and there were numerous runs on banks and trust companies. The 1907 panic eventually spread throughout the nation when many state and local banks and businesses entered bankruptcy. Primary causes of the run included a retraction of market liquidity by a number of New York City banks and a loss of confidence among depositors, exacerbated by unregulated side bets at bucket shops. The panic was triggered by the failed attempt in October 1907 to corner the market on stock of the United Copper Company. When this bid failed, banks that had lent money to the cornering scheme suffered runs that later spread to affiliated banks and trusts, leading a week later to the downfall of the Knickerbocker Trust CompanyNew York City’s third-largest trust. The collapse of the Knickerbocker spread fear throughout the city’s trusts as regional banks withdrew reserves from New York City banks. Panic extended across the nation as vast numbers of people withdrew deposits from their regional banks.

The panic might have deepened if not for the intervention of financier J. P. Morgan,  who pledged large sums of his own money, and convinced other New York bankers to do the same, to shore up the banking system. At the time, the United States did not have a central bank to inject liquidity back into the market. By November, the financial contagion had largely ended, only to be replaced by a further crisis. This was due to the heavy borrowing of a large brokerage firm that used the stock of Tennessee Coal, Iron and Rail-road Company (TC&I) as collateral. Collapse of TC&I’s stock price was averted by an emergency takeover by Morgan’s U.S. Steel Corporation—a move approved by anti-monopolist president Theodore Roosevelt. The following year, Senator Nelson W. Aldrich, father-in-law of John D. Rockefeller, Jr., established and chaired a commission to investigate the crisis and propose future solutions, leading to the creation of the Federal Reserve System. 

#acefinancenews, #federal-reserve-system, #financial-crisis, #john-d-rockefeller, #knickerbocker-crisis, #knickerbocker-trust-company, #new-york-city, #new-york-stock-exchange, #panic-of-1907, #theodore-roosevelt, #united-states, #wall-street-panic

Statement Regarding Overnight Fixed-Rate Reverse Repurchase Agreement Operational Exercise

As noted in the October 19, 2009, Statement Regarding Reverse Repurchase Agreements, the Open Market Trading Desk (the Desk) at the Federal Reserve Bank of New York (New York Fed) has been working internally and with market participants on operational aspects of tri-party reverse repurchase agreements (RRPs) to ensure that this tool will be ready to support the monetary policy objectives of the Federal Open Market Committee (Committee). RRPs are a tool that can be used for managing money market interest rates, and are expected to provide the Federal Reserve with greater control over short-term rates.
http://www.newyorkfed.org/markets/opolicy/operating_policy_130920.html

#acefinancenews, #federal-open-market-committee, #federal-reserve-system, #monetary, #rrps

Ace Breaking News- Fed Say’s No To Tapering!

Flying in the face of market predictions, the Federal Reserve today decided to “await more evidence that progress will be sustained” before winding back its $85bn-per-month bond-buying program.
http://www.mpamag.com/mortgage-interest-rates/fed-says-no-to-taper-15794.aspx

#acefinancenews, #austeritymeasures, #bond-buying-tapering, #federal-reserve-system

Is the US Dollar losing its grip as the top-dog of World Currencies!

Over the past few years many economies have gone through massive change, none more than the United States of America. Having survived the 2008 crisis  and been able to re-float the economy, ever cautiously! The question of how, has never reared its ugly head until now! The link to the video l have added to the bottom of this post, lets you the people decide, about what really when on behind closed doors, to save the almighty dollar!

The fact that Germany deposited a vast amount of their Gold could lead some to believe this was to support an ailing economy, but others would argue it was just the best place to store their most precious possession! The action of the Federal Reserve, to refuse the auditors of Germany’s  Bundesbank access to check their deposit, could lead some to believe that it has been secured against some massive debt, to support the US Dollar maybe! Or it could just be a misunderstanding and it will all be made clear very soon!

Either way one fact is that of the 9 strong rooms in the Federal Reserve, the auditors were not allowed to view more than one, and not allowed in the room to touch or check their most valued asset!

After many years of studying currency providers and watching from the sidelines as people gambled on the stock-markets risking millions of £’s and $’s everyday, one thing is sure ,without people having faith in the currency, people start divesting themselves of their share portfolios, as in the news over the past 12 months many billionaires have done!

So when l see or hear about theses types of actions ,involving a currency l always remember the simple phrase ” There is  no Smoke without Fire” so once again l will watch and see how this latest story unfolds, and see if this time, the US Dollar and its mighty power over the world, finally loses its grip, and the top-dog on the world stage, is replaced by a mongrel that has been snapping at its heels for a long time, namely China!

More soon: Editor – link to video – https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NyemAwLD2N0&feature=youtu.be

#acedebtnews, #acefinancenews, #acenewsservices, #china, #currency, #deutsche-bundesbank, #economic, #federal-reserve-system, #federalreserve, #germany, #politics, #united-states

Are Romney’s Pledges As Good As They Seem-When He Says He Will Provide Jobs

 

Last week Mitt Romney committed himself to picking a Federal Reserve Board chairman that will try to keep workers’ wage down, likely costing them tens of thousands of dollars over the next decade. You remember reading the front page news stories on this pronouncement?
Of course you didn’t read them, because the media largely ignored President Romney’s statement about his choice of Fed chairs. And all of them ignored its implications for people’s wages and living standards. The media would rather focus on the ongoing debate over President Obama’s birth certificate or, when we are lucky, tax policy decisions that might in the extreme case make $1,000-$2,000 a year in difference to the typical family. The much more important policy decisions that allow people like Mitt Romney to be incredibly wealthy and the rest of the country to be struggling are totally off the media’s radar screen.
Romney’s statement about the Fed fits in the latter category because he said that he would pick a chair who supports a “strong dollar.” The implication is that he wants the Fed to run policies that keep the dollar over-valued relative to other currencies, making U.S. goods uncompetitive in international markets. Courtesy of Dean Baker – Huffington Post 

My Personal View: 

Will this type of action not cut wages and at the same time create a no-jobs for the man in the street, mentality? As anyone knows by keeping wages low you cut the ability of the economy to grow by the power of your workers! The sheer fact that there is less money in the economy will prevent growth and with the Fed ready to issue another round of fiscal stimulation, this will help overheat an already massive debt burden! Then the only way is that the balance of debt over growth will tip them into a deeper recession than the 1930’s!

The only way any country, nation or people can make any country prosperous is by rewarding people for a job well done, that are at the sharp-end. As these people are the coal on which any economy will grow! Then instead of warming themselves on Capitol Hill on the embers of a dying economy they can look out and see a nation of people proud to be Americans,once again.

 

#barack-obama-citizenship-conspiracy-theories, #current-events, #dean-baker, #federal-reserve-system, #mass-media, #mitt-romney, #obama, #politics, #republican, #romney, #united-states

Fiscal Regeneration As Economy Slows

Federal Open Market Committee

Federal Open Market Committee (Photo credit: DonkeyHotey)

Members of the Federal Reserve’s policy-setting committee pared back their expectations for short-term U.S. economic growth as a result of tepid consumer spending and employment growth, Federal Open Market Committee minutes reveal. The FOMC warned that a potential intensification of the European debt crisis and the looming fiscal cliff also present ‘significant downside risks’ to the outlook. As such, the FOMC considered new policy options, including a large-scale asset purchase program and the extension of the Fed’s low-rate pledge to jump-start the economy.

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